R. Ramilli, F. Santoni, A. De Angelis, M. Crescentini, P. Carbone, P. A. Traverso; Binary Sequences for Online Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Battery Cells

Published in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement ( Volume: 71)
Date of Publication: 16 August 2022
Publisher: IEEE

Abstract: Online diagnostic of lithium-ion battery (LIB) cells may have significant impact on chemical energy storage systems. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is widely used for the characterization of LIBs and could be the most appropriate technique for online diagnostic, but its response time should be shortened. This work investigates the usage of multisine excitation to shorten the measurement time and simplify the hardware implementation for EIS of battery cells. Two types of multisine binary sequences are considered: sigma–delta modulated multisine sequences (SDMSs) and maximum length binary sequences (MLBSs). Their applicability to online and in situ EIS monitoring is evaluated by designing a measurement architecture also suitable to be implemented in a system-on-chip. The calibrated measurement system is compared with a benchtop reference instrument, reporting an RMSE deviation smaller than 5% in the frequency range of interest 1–200 Hz. The realized system is then used for online monitoring of the discharge process of a commercial 18650 LIB cell. The two proposed sequences are compared in terms of accuracy using a digital battery emulator circuit. Both the sequences demonstrated to be suitable for fast measurement and simple hardware integration, enabling online in situ EIS monitoring at cell level.

Keywords: Batteries, Battery charge measurement, Impedance, Monitoring, Time measurement, Frequency measurement, Sigma-delta modulation

Gemma Giliberti, Francesco Di Giacomo, Federica Cappelluti; Three Terminal Perovskite/Silicon Solar Cell with Bipolar Transistor Architecture

Published in: Energies, Vol.15, Issue 21, 10.3390/en15218146 
Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 1 November 2022
Publisher: IEEE

Abstract: Solar photovoltaic energy is the most prominent candidate to speed up the transition from the existing non-renewable energy system to a more efficient and environmentally friendly one. Currently, silicon cells dominate the photovoltaic market owing to their cost-effectiveness and high efficiency, nowadays approaching the theoretical limit. Higher efficiency can be achieved by tandem devices, where a wide bandgap semiconductor is stacked on top of the silicon cell. Thin-film perovskite technology has emerged as one of the most promising for the development of silicon-based tandems because of the optimal perovskite opto-electronic properties and the fast progress achieved in the last decade. While most of the reported perovskite/silicon tandem devices exploit a two-terminal series connected structure, three-terminal solutions have recently drawn significant attention due to their potential for higher energy yield. In this work, we report for the first time a theoretical study, based on validated optical and electrical simulations, of three-terminal perovskite/silicon solar cells employing a hetero-junction bipolar transistor structure. With respect to other three-terminal tandems proposed so far, the transistor structure can be implemented with rear-contact silicon cells, which are simpler and more common than interdigitated back-contact ones.

Keywords: double junction; perovskite; silicon tandem; three-terminal; HIT solar cell; bipolar junction architecture; physical simulation

Autonomous Driving Systems Demo Video

This is a short demonstration video about the simulator developed for Energy ECS project by Lapin AMK (Lapland university of applied sciences). The simulator can be used to develop, train and validate autonomous driving systems.

Click the picture to see the video

Henrik Staaf, Simon Matsson, Sobhan Sepheri, Elof Köhler, Kaies Daoud, Fredrik Ahrentorp, Christian Jonasson, Peter Folkow, Leena Ryynänen, Mika Penttila, Cristina Rusu; Simulated and measured piezoelectric energy harvesting of dynamic load in tires’ submitted to Heliyon Energy

Published in: SSRN 4435728
Posted Date: 7 June 2023
Publisher: SSRN

Abstract: Sensors mounted in tires require a continuous power supply, currently from batteries. Piezoelectric energy harvesting is a promising technology to harvest energy from tire movement and deformation. This study presents a new simulation method to model simultaneous the combination of tire deformation and piezoelectric harvester with dynamic bending zone. The approach combines numerical simulations in COMSOL Multiphysics with real-life measurements of electrical output of a piezoelectric energy harvester mounted on a tire. In the simulation, angular and initial velocities were used for rolling motion, angled polarization was introduced in the model for the piezoelectric material to generate correct voltage from tire deformation. Experimental measurements conducted at Nokian Tyres and RISE show good agreement with dynamic simulation. The study also shows the importance of optimizing the harvester’s geometry for maximum electrical output which can power some tire sensors.

Keywords: Zero energy devices, Energy harvesting, Piezoelectricity, PVDF

Cristina Rusu, Mike Hayes; Presentation: Major Research Collaborations Driving Energy Harvesting TRL progression and Power IoT Ecosystem

Presentation Link: RISE Presentation, Sensor Converge June 2023
Conference: Sensor Converge, 20 – 22 June 2023
Session Title: Extending Battery Life to Empower the IoT/IIoT

In the ‘Sensors Converge’ event held from June 20-22, 2023, Energy ECS ‘s Swedish partner, RISE, presented first results from their collaborative research in the session ‘Extending Battery Life to Empower the IoT/IIoT’.

One of the discussed Use Cases from Energy ECS project under discussion was the ‘UC2A Smart Containers’. The UC has successfully extended battery life for over a decade by using photovoltaic energy harvesting. This technology optimizes consumption and enables fully digitized supply chains, marking a significant leap towards sustainable and efficient logistics. The second Use Case, ‘UC5 Self-powered Tyres’, addresses the intricate challenges related to harvesting energy from tire movement and development of the energy harvesting system for harsh environment. This research is set to revolutionize the understanding and application of renewable energy harvesting for tire technology and in the industry.

The presentation at ‘Sensors Converge’ stimulated engaging discussions on the crucial role of Energy ECS’s technology in e-mobility and IoT power solutions. The recognition of the technological advancements made by Energy ECS and RISE underlines the importance of their research in the field of energy efficiency.

N. Lowenthal, G. P. Gibiino, C. Tamburini, M. Mengozzi, A. Romani, P. A. Traverso; Automated Measurement Set-Up for the Electro-Mechanical Characterization of Piezoelectric Harvesters

Published in: 2023 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Automotive (MetroAutomotive)
Date of Conference: 28 – 30 June 2023
Publisher: IEEE

Abstract: This paper presents an automated measurement setup for the electro-mechanical characterization of piezoelectric energy harvesters in cantilever configuration. The setup provides a mechanical stimulus to the harvester and concurrently acquires mechanical and electrical quantities to characterize the electro-mechanical properties of the device under test in open-circuit conditions. The setup, composed by an electrodynamic shaker, a waveform analyzer, and two laser-based positioning sensors, is fully controlled via MATLAB. The use of two laser heads allows to measure the movement of the base, so to automatically consider artefacts due to the non-ideal response of the electrodynamic shaker. The proposed measurement system is compatible with any generic piezoelectric-cantilever harvesters, and it can be exploited for advanced modelling techniques that requires extensive experimental data. The proposed measurement setup was validated through the characterization of a commercial Piezo Protection Advantage (PPA) transducer up to 300 Hz.

Keywords: Vibrations, Electrodynamics, Transducers, Phase measurement, Sensor phenomena and characterization, Metrology, Frequency measurement

N. Lowenthal, R. Ramilli, M. Crescentini, P. A. Traverso; Development of a numerical framework for the analysis of a multi-tone EIS measurement system

Published in: 2023 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Automotive (MetroAutomotive)
Date of Conference: 28 – 30 June 2023
Publisher: IEEE

Abstract: This paper describes an integrated co-simulation framework of circuital/behavioural/algorithmic type devoted to the design, simulation, and support to validation of a system of measurement based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for lithium-ion battery cells. The simulation framework comprises two main parts: a circuital simulator and a numerical environment. It allows the study of a generic system: in particular, it has been applied to analyze an EIS system as a whole without neglecting the effects of the hardware nonidealities on the software algorithm (through a direct connection between the circuital simulator and the numerical environment). A model is implemented inside the circuital simulator, replicating as accurately as possible an existing laboratory prototype devoted to EIS measurements. After the simulation of the prototype, the numerical environment executes an algorithmic elaboration to estimate impedance values for a lithium-ion battery. Throughout several simulations, it is possible to check the non-idealities of the prototype. The simulation framework identified and corrected a malfunction of the prototype available in the laboratory and thus permitted the implementation of a circuit with improved performance.

Keywords: Lithium-iron batteries, Impedance measurement, Software algorithms, Prototypes, Battery charge measurement, Software, Mathematical models

Aldo Romani, Marco Crescentini, Christina Rusu, Henrik Staaf, Marco Ambrosio, Marcello Chiaberge, Anna Piacibello, Marco Pirola, Gemma Giliberti, Federica Cappelluti, Giovanni Ghione, Michael Hayes, Eoin Ahern, Prateek Asthana, Gerd vom Bögel, Marco Galiazzo, Leena Ryynänen, Mika Penttilä, Heini Siekkinen, Stefano Saggini, Federico Iob, Giulia Segatti, Rahul Tomar, Mohith Bhargav Sunkara, Rucha Mangesh Kathe, Paolo Mezzanotte, Iftikhar Ahmad, Ksenia Avetisova; The ENERGY ECS Project: Smart and Secure Energy Solutions for Future Mobility

Published in: AEIT International Conference on Electrical and Electronic Technologies for Automotive, AEIT AUTOMOTIVE 2023 
Date of Publication: 17 July 2023
DOI: 10.3030/101007247
Publisher: IEEE

Abstract: Electric and smart mobility are key enablers for their green energy transition. However, the electrification of vehicles poses several challenges, from the development of power components to the organization of the electric grid system. Moreover, it is expected that the smartification of mobility via sensors and novel transport paradigms will play an essential role in the reduction of the consumed energy. In response to these challenges and expectations, the ENERGY ECS project is pursuing smart and secure energy solutions for the mobility of the future, by developing power components, battery charging electronics, and self-powered sensors for condition monitoring, along with advanced techniques for grid management, applications of artificial intelligence, machine learning and immersing technologies. This paper presents the project’s objectives and reports intermediate results from the perspective of the targeted use cases.

Keywords: Energy, Mobility, Electronics, Components, Systems, Sensors, Batteries, Drones, Grids

M. Mohammadgholiha, F. Zonzini, J. Moll, L. De Marchi; Directional Multi-Frequency Guided Waves Communications Using Discrete Frequency-Steerable Acoustic Transducers

Published in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control ( Early Access )
Date of Publication: 14 August 2023
DOI: 10.1109/TUFFC.2023.3305032
Publisher: IEEE

Abstract: A novel directional transducer based on Guided Waves (GW) is introduced in this paper, designed for use in structural health monitoring (SHM) and acoustic data communication applications, i.e., systems in which the elastic medium serves as a transmission channel and information is conveyed through the medium via elastic waves. Such systems can overcome difficulties associated with traditional communication methods like wire-based or radio frequency (RF), which can be complex and have limitations in harsh environments or hard-to-reach places. However, the development of these techniques is hampered by GW dispersive and multi-modal propagation and by multi-path interference. The shortcomings can be effectively addressed by employing Frequency Steerable Acoustic Transducers (FSATs), which leverage their inherent directional capabilities. This can be achieved through the exploitation of a frequency-dependent spatial filtering effect, yielding to a direct correlation between the frequency content of the transmitted or received signals and the direction of propagation. The proposed transducer is designed to actuate or sense the A0 Lamb wave propagating in three orientations using varying frequencies, and has three channels with distinct frequencies for each direction, ranging from 50 kHz to 450 kHz. The transducer performance was verified through Finite Element (FE) simulations, accompanied by experimental testing using a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV). The unique frequency-steering capability of FSATs is combined with the On-Off Keying (OOK) modulation scheme to achieve frequency directivity in hardware, similar to ongoing research in 5G communications. The MIMO capabilities of the transducer were finally tested over a thin aluminum plate, showing excellent agreement with the FE simulation results.

Keywords: Transducers, Acoustics, Dispersion, Data communication, Shape, Sensors, Frequency modulation

Gerd vom Bögel, Felix Essingholt, Bernhard Bennertz, Thorben Grenter; Digitization of the Distribution Grid to Support e-Mobility Charging Infrastructure

Published in: IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Automotive, MetroAutomotive 2023. Proceedings
Date of Publication: 23 August 2023
DOI: 10.1109/MetroAutomotive57488.2023
Publisher: IEEE

Abstract: The article addresses a subproject of the Energy ECS project, in which the development and realization of suitable components for condition monitoring of electrical distribution grids is carried out. By means of suitable sensor systems, communication and IT infrastructure components, relevant information on network infrastructure elements at neuralgic points is collected, aggregated and communicated. This information can be used directly for a highly dynamic grid-serving control of grid components to ensure a robust and efficient use of the distribution grid. The project makes a direct contribution to the digitization of distribution grids and thus contributes to the successful integration of decentralized generators and electromobility. The main objective of the subproject is the development and realization of energy-autonomous sensor systems for recording the status of relevant components of a low-voltage distribution network. The work to be carried out includes sensor principles as well as the field of energy harvesting or the field of sensor signal processing.

Keywords: Smart grid monitoring, Self-sufficient sensor, LPWAN, Controlled charging infrastructure, Charging infrastructure